Journal of University Medical & Dental College <p>Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, JUMDC, is the official peer reviewed Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, constituent college of The University of Faisalabad. JUMDC is open access journal being published quarterly.<br><br>ISSN, 2221-7827<br>ISSN, 2310-5542</p> <p>Original research articles, review articles, practical updates, case reports, letter to editor of medical and allied health sciences are being evaluated by editorial board and peer reviewers before publication in the journal.</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" border="0"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Editor,) (Dr. Muhammad Akram Malik) Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Contents Editor Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 BLOOD GROUPS AND COVID-19 Saba Tariq, Sundus Tariq Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 THE ASSESSMENT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN MEDICAL FACULTY WORKING AT POONCH MEDICAL COLLEGE (PMC), AJK <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong></p> <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>There has been limited understanding of role of emotional intelligence in education and also limited understanding of emotional intelligence levels in teaching and clinical practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the level of emotional intelligence in medical teachers and see whether emotional intelligence differs in male/female and senior/junior faculty.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A cross sectional survey was conducted at Poonch Medical College (PMC), Rawalakot, AJK for 2 months i.e. July to August 2018. Faculty (n=117) from basic pay scale-17 to 21, of basic and clinical sciences departments were included in study after informed consent. Data were collected using “Leadership Toolkit Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire.” Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated to measure the level of emotional intelligence in faculty members and to quantify variations across gender and position.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: The response rate in this study was (92.3%) 108/117. There were 56 (51.9%) female and 52 (48.1%) male respondents. Majority of the faculty members 69 (63.9%) were junior level teachers whereas 39 (36.1%) were senior level faculty. The overall mean emotional intelligence was 178.4 ± 21.4, which did not vary across male, and females, or level positions. Self-awareness, was found higher in females (39.9 versus 38.2), however this difference was statistically insignificant (p-value, 0.12). The mean score in managing emotions were also slightly higher in females (33.1 versus 32.5).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The medical faculty at PMC, AJK has a reasonably high level of emotional intelligence. There was no difference in the overall emotional intelligence levels across gender and position.</p> Zareena Akram, Ahsan Sethi, Aabish Mehreen, Marium Sohail Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF MEAN DISTANCE BETWEEN CENTRAL INCISOR AND INCISIVE PAPILLA WITH RESPECT TO STANDARDIZED ARCH FORM IN DENTATE SUBJECTS <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> Edentulous patients require accurate positioning of artificial maxillary anterior teeth in complete dentures to recover the esthetic and phonetic characteristics. This positioning is guided by measuring distance between central incisor (CI) and incisive papilla (IP) in dentate subjects which varies according to the ovoid, square and tapered maxillary arch forms.</p> <p>Objectives: 1- To determine the frequency of three different arch forms in dentate patients;</p> <p>2- To assess the mean distance between central incisor and incisive papilla in each of the three maxillary arch forms.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> 130 cases were selected by non-probability consecutive sampling, which included both genders and age range of 20-40 years. Impressions of maxillary arches were recorded and their casts photocopied. Arch form template was used to standardize the assessment of arch forms by best-fit method on the photocopies. The distance between mesio-incisal edge of CI and posterior border of IP was measured with digital verniercalipers (SparkFun,Colorado).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: Out of 130 subjects, 54 males and 76 females were present. The ovoid arch form was the most frequent form recorded at 67% (n=87) while the tapered arch was the least at 14% (n=18). The overall mean distance between central incisor (CI) and incisive papilla (IP) was 11.34mm (7.58mm - 16.45mm). The mean distance was the highest for ovoid arch form (11.58mm) and lowest for square (10.49) with a statistically significant difference (p=0.016) between the two arch forms.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: The ovoid arch was the most frequent arch form found in dentate subjects. The mean distance recorded was highest for ovoid arch followed by tapering arch and least for square arches.</p> Ussamah Waheed Jatala, Anam Fayyaz Bashir, Nazia Yazdanie Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARISON OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF DYNAMIC CONDYLAR SCREW AND CONDYLAR BLADE PLATE IN TYPE A FRACTURES OF DISTAL FEMUR IN SKELETALLY MATURUE PATIENTS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Distal femur fractures are increasingly common injuries in today’s orthopedic practice. Early treatment with suitable implant brings in promising functional outcomes. There is a growing debate over the type of implant used in these injuries. Therefore, we have compared two commonly used implants to determine the functional outcomes in search of an implant that has less post op complications, less technically demanding and produces better results<strong>. </strong>To compare the functional outcome of dynamic condylar screw with condylar blade plate in treatment of distal femur fractures.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A total of 372 skeletally mature patients aging 18-60 years of both gender with fracture distal femur (Type A, according to OTA classification) presented within 3 weeks of fracture time were included. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were stratified into two groups having 186 patients each. Group A and Group B. Group A received dynamic condylar screw fixation and in group B, condylar blade plate fixation was preferred. Patients were followed for 3 years and their Functional outcome was evaluated with the help of Lysholm Knee Score.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Lysholm knee score after 3 years in group A (Dynamic condylar screw) was excellent (95-100) in 173 patients (76.9%), Good in 33 (17.7 %), Fair in 8 (4.3%), poor in 2 (1.1%).However, group B had Excellent in 57(30.6%), Good in 59(31.7%), Fair in 38 (20.4%), and poor in 32 (17.2%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Dynamic condylar screw can be used as an effective treatment with better functional outcome as compared to condylar blade plate in type A fractures of distal femur.</p> Dilshad Gill, Muhammad Javaid Iqbal Awan, Osma Bin Saeed, Basharat Manzoor Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF SOFOSBUVIR AND VELPATASVIR IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS SUFFERING WITH HEPATITIS C INFECTION <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE</strong>: There is scantiness of evidence-based knowledge of anti-viral therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (VLP) in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. This report is an attempt to rationalise the safety and effectiveness of SOF and VLP in haemodialysis patients in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY</strong>: Twenty treatment-naïve patients were incorporated in this study. Patients on maintenance haemodialysis are being administered SOF and VLP. Before initiation of treatment, all necessary investigations such as viral load, liver fibro scan, genotyping and upper GI endoscopy were made. Patients received 400 mg/day and 100 mg/day dose of SOF and VLP, respectively.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: Mean age was 25 to 53 years; 30% were male and 70% were female as categorized. No one of these has clinical affirmation of progression of cirrhosis. The most prevalent genotype was genotype 4 that was found in 45% of cases and the second most evident was genotype 1 in 25% of cases and genotype 5 in 30% of cases. Time span of antiviral therapy was 12 weeks.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>SOF and VLP based direct antiviral agents were effectual, puissant and were aptly tolerated in patients on MHD. This drug combination was well tolerated in haemodialysis patients. Not a single patient discontinued this combination therapy due to severe complications.</p> Yasir Mehmood, Muhammad Imran Ashraf , Khadija Mastoor, Adnan Afzal , Zafar Latif Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION IN TUBERCULOSIS OF SPINE BIOPSIES <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong></p> <p align="justify"><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE</strong>: The tuberculosis (TB) of the spine is causing permanent deformities since long time. Earliest most possible accurate diagnosis is required to treat either TB or to exclude other lesions to avoid permanent disability.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong></p> <p align="justify">This is a descriptive study conducted at pathology department of Lahore Medical &amp; Dental College (LM&amp;DC), Lahore from January 2017 to December 2019. All the spine biopsies received in Pathology department were included in the study irrespective of age and sex. Each biopsy was grossly and microscopically examined and reported by a histopathologist.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong></p> <p align="justify">Out of 386 specimens received, 189 (48.9%) were clinically diagnosed as tuberculosis. Out of these 189 cases, 127 were confirmed on histopathological examination showing clinicopathological correlations in 67.19 % of cases. The rest 62 (32.80%) of the cases were reported as chronic non specific inflammation (38), degenerative changes (11), metastatic tumor (04), and atypical cell infiltrate (02), plasma cell neoplasm (01), Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (01) and other lesions (05) which all were benign. Out of the total 386 spine biopsies, 154 (39.89 %) were histopathologically proven for tuberculosis. &nbsp;From these 154 histologically proven cases, 127 were clinically suspected cases of Tuberculosis. No clinical diagnosis was provided in 02 patients. The rest of 25 patients were clinically labeled as pathological lesion without specific diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong></p> <p align="justify">Histopathology should be considered as the most reliable tool for spinal tuberculosis to minimize permanent disability associated with wrong management based on potentially erroneous clinical diagnosis.</p> Muhammad Shahbaz Amin, Seema Butt, Abdullah Shahbaz, Majid Zaheer, Ashfaq Ahmed, Shazia Nilofer Ibnerasa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFICACY OF SELECTIVE ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (TAMSULOSIN) IN FACILITATING THE PASSAGE OF RENAL STONES AFTER EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Urinary system stone disease is a common entity. Small renal stones are preferably treated using Extracarporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) technique. Passage of stone fragments result in pain, hematuria and urinary tract obstruction. This can be avoided by the use selective α-1 receptor antagonists like Tamsulosin. However, their efficacy remains a matter of debate. In this study the role of selective α-1 blocker was evaluated in facilitating spontaneous expulsion of renal stone fragments after ESWL. The objective of our study was to find out the Efficacy of Tamsulosin (Selective α-1 blocker) in facilitating the transit of stone fragments (4-7mm) after ESWL. Follow up X-ray KUB was used to confirm the stone clearance. Efficacy was measured in terms of stone expulsion rate.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>It was randomized controlled trial including 150 patients coming to outpatient department of Urology Lahore General Hospital, Lahore from January 25, 2010­ to July 25, 2010. Total 150 patients with renal stones broken down into fragments (4-7mm) after ESWL were enrolled using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Patients were categorized into group A and B. Patients of group A received cap. Tamsulosin 0.4mg along with Tab. Diclofenac sodium 50mg. Whereas, patients belonging to group B received only diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice daily. Patients underwent ESWL every three weeks, in case of non-fragmentation, to the maximum of 4 sessions. All the patients were followed with X Ray KUB for stone clearance. The data of all patients was incorporated into pre designed Performa. Statistical evaluation of clinical variables done in terms of efficacy i.e. stone clearance.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Stone clearance rate of patients in group A was 86.6% as compared to only 76% in group B. Usage of selective α-1 blockers in group A enhanced the stone clearance rate as compared to group B. However this difference was statistically insignificant (p-value-0.094).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>There was increased stone clearance in alpha one blocker group but not statistically significant. Further studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate the role of Selective α-1 blockers (Tamsulosin) after ESWL.</p> Nauman Khalid, Aijaz Hussain Memon, Wasim Sarwar Bhatti, Hanan Noor, Muhammad Waqas Iqbal , Muhammad Sohail Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DIFFERENCES AMONG THE PERCEPTIONS OF ORTHODONTISTS, PROSTHODONTISTS AND CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY SPECIALISTS REGARDING BUCCAL CORRIDOR WIDTHS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> To find out the optimal ranges of smile attractiveness on basis of different amounts of buccal corridor widths, as judged by Pakistani orthodontists, prosthodontists and conservative dentistry specialists (CDS).</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>Present cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2016 to June 2017. The anterior smiling image of a female model was edited to be converted to 10 images displaying different amounts of buccal corridor width. After informed consent from the subject, different buccal corridors widths images were created at following widths: 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 14%, 16%, and 18%. This was followed by measurement of smile attractiveness of these 10 images on a visual analogue scale by 30 evaluators in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 CDS, group 2 consisted of 10 prosthodontists and group 3 consisted of 10 orthodontists. The data was collected and scores of smile attractiveness were presented in form of mean and standard deviation for each group. The differences in the three groups regarding perception of smile attractiveness were found out using ANOVA test and Turkey’s post-hoc test was used for multiple comparisons.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>For group 1, the highest scoring was obtained by image showing 10% buccal corridor width. In group 2, the highest score was by image showing 14% buccal corridor width, whereas in group 3, the highest scoring was showing 12% buccal corridor width. The differences found were statistically insignificant.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Dental specialty does not affect perception of smile attractiveness. Buccal corridor width greater than 14% should be avoided.</p> Muhammad Azeem, Ali Raza, Rashid Mahmood, Erum Behroz Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FUTURE CHALLENGES IN THE WAKE OF COVID-19 ON MENTAL HEALTH IN PAKISTAN- A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a contagious disease that has shaken the mankind. Up till 30th June 2020, about 10.1 million people have been affected across 188 countries around the world. Deterioration of mental health is long-term effect of a pandemic. Methods for the control of COVID-19 have provoked fear, anxiety and frustration. Developed countries might be able to handle them but for a developing country it may prove an economic “Death Warrant”. Pakistan is one of countries that have been fighting with COVID-19, with about 24% of the population living below the national poverty line and aftermaths of this pandemic still awaits. We intend to assess impact of COVID-19 on mental health in Pakistan to contribute towards the prevention of anticipated complications by getting a more clear picture.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>Online literature search was carried out from Jan 2020 to Jun 2020, using Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed with the help of key words. This resulted in retrieval of 151 articles after removing duplicated ones. Articles with incomplete information, case reports, case series, letters or editorials were also excluded. After shortlisting, seven articles were finally selected for the review.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: This review observed that mental illnesses have been potentiated by COVID-19 due to its multi-dimensional manifestations especially on the economic growth of the country. Health care professionals and those having previous history of any psychological disabilities are the easy targets.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> COVID-19 disease management and preventive measures to provide psychological support must go hand in hand.</p> Seemi Tanvir, Mariam Babar, Ayesha Fazal, Faiqa Fazal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 REVIEW ON THE PHARMACOLOGY OF THE DRUGS USED FOR COVID-19 OUTBREAK <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong></p> <p>The recent global health threat is the outbreak of a viral infectious disease caused by SARS-COV2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus). The origin of this outbreak is from the animal market in Wuhan, China. So, it is considered as zoonotic in origin as its mode of transmission is from animals to human. This outbreak is similar to previous outbreaks of coronavirus like SARS-COV (Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome) and MERS-COV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). Until now different pharmacological drugs have been used to mitigate the symptoms of the COVID-19 throughout the world. There is no specific medication prescribed as the treatment of this disease. However, pharmacological drugs and immune boosting dietary therapies have been proved effective in treatment strategies.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong></p> <p>The latest epidemiological articles, research articles, review articles, WHO guidelines and news proceedings are selected in this review. Articles were searched under the keyword search of COVID-19, drugs for COVID-19, latest COVID-19 research, surveys for covid-19. PubMed, Lancet, Elsevier, BMJ and CDC were used to accumulate the latest findings.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p> <p>There is no vaccine or other proper treatment available for this infectious disease but the symptomatic treatment is usually given to the infected person as the use of certain pharmacological as well as traditional drugs are given to reduce the symptoms associated with this disease. Furthermore, COVID-19 serious patients on ventilator are treated with the plasma therapy as with the antibiotics from the plasma of recovered patients is also in use to reduce mortality rate.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong></p> <p>To prevent this infectious disease it is important to avoid the person-to-person transmission which is mainly via coughing, sneezing, droplets of the respiration, direct contact with the infected person. So, the social distancing and self-quarantine is preferred to avoid the spread of this infectious disease. The drugs which are commonly used to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of COVID-19 are Paracetamol, Aspirin/Loprin, Dabigatran, Azithromycin, Famotidine, Ipratopium bromide, Dexamethasone,Tocilizumab, and Moxifloxacin. These drugs have been practiced by the practitioners to treat the symptoms of covid-19. However no pertinent drug has been approved as a cure of covid-19.</p> Noor ul ain Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FREQUENCY OF TWO ROOTS IN PERMANENT MANDIBULAR CANINE OF PAKISTANI POPULATION: A CONE BEAM COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CBCT) STUDY <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> Missed root/canal is one of the main causes of endodontic failure. Permanent mandibular canine is considered to be a single rooted tooth. The complex pattern of root canal system poses difficulty in the root canal treatment and the prognosis becomes uncertain if the debridement and obturation of the root canals is not satisfactory therefore our objective of the study is to assess frequency of two roots in permanent mandibular canine of Pakistani population using CBCT scan.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A descriptive; retrospective study was planned by using Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) images of the past 02 year, i.e. December 2017 till November 2018. Images were assessed for the number of roots in permanent mandibular canines using software NNTVIEWER NewTOM. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 21.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>134 permanent mandibular canines of 67 patients were studied. 64.2% of the images were of male patients while 35.8% were of females. Mean age of the patients was 48.12 ± 15.92 years. 7 (5.22%) out of 134 canines had two roots. 4 patients (5.97%) had canines with 2 roots of which 3 patients (4.48%) had bilateral two-rooted canines and 1 patient (1.49%) had unilateral two-rooted canines. Frequency of two roots in mandibular canines had no association with gender (p= 0.127).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>All mandibular permanent canines were single rooted but 5.2% of the permanent mandibular canines had two roots.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nauman Bari Khan, Muhammad Azhar, Nabeela Abbasi, Amir Mushtaq Baig, Benish Mehmood, Azad Ali Azad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000